Banks are an integral part of the overall financial activity of the country, business activity indicator in the Republic of Moldova. Therefore, making an analysis of the activities of these institutions, as a system, it will be possible to make correct conclusion about the state of the national economy at the present stage of development of our state. This explains the relevance of the topic.The purpose of this article is to identify the features of the functioning of the financial institutions system, in particular the banking system of the Republic of Moldova. When writing this article we used printed periodicals, book publications, Internet resources. We used scientific methods of research, such as synthesis, grouping, comparing and others.