In the Republic of Moldova, the problem of the social capital and its main indicator – the trust is less studied. The conceptual apparatus is insufficient developed and there were made very few empirical studies. Therefore, the theme of this article is very actual. The aim of the study is to implement the assess of the interpersonal trust and the trust in the social protection institutions. In the paper were used the following research methods: monographic, analytical, comparing, analogy. It was demonstrated that the level of interpersonal trust in Republic of Moldova is lower than in many other countries. The level of institutional trust is extremely low, especially in the public institutions. It was concluded that the low level of social capital is a limiting factor in improvement of the social protection system in Republic of Moldova.